کلیک : اخبار پزشکی انگلیسی
A stroke is a loss of blood flow in the brain. There are two kinds of stroke. One is an ischemic stroke. It happens when a blood vessel in the brain gets blocked. The other kind is called a hemorrhagic, or bleeding, stroke. This happens when a blood vessel breaks.
Strokes can cause death or disability. Bleeding strokes are more likely to kill than ischemic strokes. But ischemic strokes are more common -- and doctors can treat them with a drug that breaks up blood clots.
If you think someone is having a stroke, you should seek help immediately. Experts at the United States National Institutes of Health say the treatment has to begin within three hours. But they say people need to get to the hospital within one hour so doctors have time to examine them.
|Experts say breast milk is the best food for babies|
There are ten breast milk banks across the United States. However, there are many more stations set up where mothers can donate their extra milk for other women's babies.
Experts say breast milk is the best food for babies. In fact, the World Health Organization says it is the only food babies should get during the first six months of life, in most cases.
Breast milk is especially important for babies born too early. Sometimes these premature babies must stay in the hospital for many weeks.
There are several reasons some mothers may not be able to breastfeed. Some are not able to make enough milk. Others might be taking medicines or have medical problems that prevent the process.
|Doctor Craig Smith uses a model to explain the heart operation he performed on former president Bill Clinton in September 2004|
Later, it divides into four parts. As the heart beats, it pumps blood through these chambers and the blood vessels in the body. The body is estimated to have at least ninety-six thousand kilometers of blood vessels.
That is about the same as two and a half times around the Earth. But blood goes the distance in about twenty seconds on its way back to the heart. Each day the heart pumps about eight thousand liters of blood.
Michael DeBakey performed more than sixty thousand operations during his long career as a heart surgeon.
His patients included American presidents John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon. They also included Russian president Boris Yeltsin and the Shah of Iran.
Doctor DeBakey died July eleventh in Houston, Texas, two months short of his one hundredth birthday.
As a medical student in nineteen thirty-one, he invented the roller pump. Years later it would be used for blood transfusions during heart operations.
A new study in rural Nepal shows the value of washing hands with soap and water in preparation for childbirth. Researchers found that hand washing by birth attendants and mothers increased the chances that babies would survive their first month.
|A nurse washes her hands before entering a patient's room. The simple act of washing hands can prevent the spread of disease.|
The study showed that the risk of death was nineteen percent lower when birth attendants washed their hands before delivery. And the risk of death was forty-four percent lower when mothers washed their hands before they touched their baby.
Researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in the United States did the study. They observed more than twenty-three thousand newborns. Almost all were born at home or on the way to a medical center.
The study says just fifty-three percent of birth attendants reported washing their hands with soap and water before delivery. And only fifteen percent of mothers reported washing their hands before handling their newborn.
Doctors around the world now perform more than two hundred thirty million major operations every year. The World Health Organization says preventable injuries and deaths from surgical care are a growing concern.
Experts estimate that surgical complications result in at least one million deaths a year. The W.H.O. says studies suggest that about half of these problems may be preventable.
The agency hopes to reduce mistakes with a program built around a new Surgical Safety Checklist.
Some experts predict that doctors will someday use stem cells to treat many different diseases. Yet so far there has been less progress in stem cell therapies than many had hoped.
For years, scientists have studied stem-cell treatment of cancer. Doctors now use stem cells in therapies for several forms of the disease. But at the same time, researchers increasingly are examining a possible connection between stem cells and cancer.
Some people's ears produce wax like busy little bees. This can be a problem even though earwax appears to serve an important purpose.
Experts say it protects and cleans the ear. It traps dirt and other matter and keeps insects out. Doctors think it might also help protect against infections. And the waxy oil keeps ears from getting too dry.
So earwax is good. It even has a medical name: cerumen. There are two kinds. Most people of European or African ancestry have the "wet" kind: thick and sticky. East Asians commonly have "dry" earwax.
But you can have too much of a good thing.
|Five women in Rolla, Missouri, all at least 100 years old|
Scientists continue to search for genetic answers to why some people live a long time.
One study has now examined more than four hundred fifty people between the ages of ninety-five and one hundred ten. Researchers at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University in New York recently reported the latest findings.
The study looked at changes in genes that govern an important cell-signaling pathway. These genes are involved in the action of a hormone that affects almost every kind of cell in the body. The hormone is called insulin-like growth factor, or IGF-one.
A United Nations report says almost three million people in developing countries are now receiving drugs for H.I.V. This is an increase of almost one million people from two thousand six. Still, the hope was to reach three million by two thousand five.
The World Health Organization, UNAIDS and UNICEF, the United Nations Children’s Fund, released the new report Tuesday.
Last week doctors in Massachusetts announced that Senator Ted Kennedy has brain cancer.
The news came after he suffered a seizure. Doctors found a glioma, a growth in the supportive tissue of the brain. The glial tissue is where the largest percentage of brain tumors begin.
More than forty percent of growths in the brain are gliomas. But they make up almost eighty percent of cancerous growths, like the malignant glioma that Senator Kennedy has.
Seizures and headaches are common first signs of a glioma.
Cancerous glial tumors generally spread in the brain the way roots spread from a plant. That makes removing the tumor more difficult. A clear border between the cancer and healthy tissue can be difficult to find.
But Director-General Margaret Chan, as she opened the World Health Assembly, noted that the delegates are meeting at a time of tragedy. She expressed sympathy to the millions of people affected by the recent cyclone in Burma, also known as Myanmar, and the earthquake in China.
Doctor Chan said three crises lie ahead that are international security threats and will all affect human health. One is food security, another is climate change and the third is the threat of a worldwide outbreak of influenza.
|Doctor Santiago Horgan|
The operation at the University of California San Diego Medical Center in March lasted three hours. It was done as part of a study to test new methods of minimally invasive surgery. Santiago Horgan, director of UC San Diego's Center for the Future of Surgery, led the medical team.
Doctors used a long robotic tube to pass the instrument down the patient's throat. Then they made a cut in the wall of the stomach. The cut was made to pass the instrument through to the appendix for removal.
|Chest compressions on a CPR training dummy|
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR, is help for a stopped heart. It increases the chances of survival and reduces the danger of brain damage. With traditional CPR, you push hard on the chest thirty times, then stop to give two breaths to force air into the lungs. You repeat the steps until the victim can get medical treatment.
But people may worry about getting sick from blowing into a stranger's mouth. Also, the training is easy to forget, especially in a crisis. And those without training may be afraid to do anything for fear they will do something wrong.
|Leroy Hubley of Toledo, Ohio, lost his wife and son after they received heparin. He is shown at a hearing held Tuesday by a House Energy and Commerce subcommittee.|
Officials in the United States have received hundreds of reports of severe reactions, including deaths.
On April twenty-first, the Food and Drug Administration released a warning letter to a Chinese supplier for the Baxter heparin. The letter said Changzhou SPL had received material from an unacceptable supplier, and could not purify the materials used to make the drug. F.D.A. inspectors found that the company did not follow good manufacturing practice.
Chinese officials have suggested that the contaminant entered the heparin during the finishing process in the United States. Baxter disagreed. A Chinese delegation visited a Baxter factory in New Jersey last week.
Scientists have offered explanations for how the chemical could have caused the allergic reactions and low blood pressure seen in patients.
A Brazilian drug company and a nonprofit group have developed a new, simplified malaria treatment.
|A laboratory worker shows reporters the new combination drug for malaria|
Patients have to take only one tablet a day for three days for some ages, or two tablets a day for three days for other ages.
The medicine combines two existing malaria drugs, artesunate and mefloquine. This combination has been widely used in recent years in Latin America and Southeast Asia.
The Brazilian government will make the new treatment available throughout Latin America and Southeast Asia over this year and next. The fixed-dose drug will be offered to public agencies at a target price of two and a half dollars for the full adult treatment.
|Health officials destroy birds on a farm in Muan, South Korea, to fight the spread of bird flu|
South Korea this month reported new outbreaks in birds.
And the United States health secretary urged Indonesia to cooperate more with the World Health Organization to share virus samples. Mike Leavitt spoke Monday in Jakarta. He noted that many life-saving vaccines have resulted from international cooperation.
Indonesia has had the most deaths of any country from H5N1, more than one hundred people. But it wants the right to approve any drug company's use of virus samples from Indonesia. Indonesia also wants guarantees that poor countries would be able to get low-cost vaccines developed from their samples.
And that’s the VOA Special English Health Report, written by Caty Weaver. I’m Faith Lapidus.
|Research suggests that the belly is the worst place to have fat|
Being overweight can lead to high blood pressure, diabetes and heart attacks. But now there may be another reason to lose the fat, especially around the middle of the body.
A recent study suggested that people in their forties with belly fat have an increased risk of dementia later in life.
Dementia is the name for a group of brain disorders that affect memory, behavior, learning and language. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause. Dementia rarely appears before the age of sixty.
The new study added to growing evidence that people with large stomachs can face greater health risks than others who are overweight.
|Schistosoma mansoni, one of three major kinds of worms that cause schistosomiasis|
Scientists think they are a step closer to a new drug to treat schistosomiasis. More than two hundred million people suffer from this parasitic worm disease. Most live in developing nations in tropical climates. About ten percent of victims become seriously disabled from internal bleeding, iron loss, organ damage or other effects.
A team in the United States found that chemical compounds known as oxadiazoles can target an enzyme needed for the survival of Schistosoma. This is the group of flatworms that cause schistosomiasis.
The scientists tested oxadiazoles on laboratory mice. They found that one compound killed the parasite at every level of development – from larva to adult. The study also showed that the compound was active against all three major species of Schistosoma worms that infect humans.
|Children in Uganda|
Uganda began widespread child vaccinations against Hib in two thousand two. Now, a study has found that in areas where cases were counted, the disease rate fell by eighty-five percent in the first four years. Then it fell to zero in two thousand six.
Scientists from the government, the World Health Organization, a French agency and others have been studying the campaign. They estimate that the program now prevents thirty thousand severe infections and five thousand deaths in children under five each year. Their report is to be published next month in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization.
|A bottle of Prozac|
S.S.R.I.s are designed to help keep serotonin, a brain chemical, at a continuous level. The new study suggests that they provide little help to the large majority of the millions who take them.
Scientists from Britain, Canada and the United States did the study. It was a meta-analysis, a study of studies.
The team used an American law, the Freedom of Information Act, to get unpublished reports on thirty-five clinical trials of four drugs. Drug companies gave these and published studies to the Food and Drug Administration for approval of the medicines.
In many societies, there is often greater acceptance of light skin than dark skin. Light skin may be seen as a mark of beauty, intelligence and success. These beliefs can lead to social pressures even within the same racial or ethnic group, if some members are darker skinned than others.
The result is that skin lightening has become a common activity across Africa, Asia and other areas of the world. More and more people with dark skin are using skin-lightening products, even if it means they may face health risks.
|Who is happiest?|
They found that people around the world seem to share an emotional design in life. That design, they say, is shaped like the letter U. Levels of happiness are highest when people are young and when they are old. In the middle, however, most people's happiness and life satisfaction levels drop.
Professor Oswald says some people suffer from midlife depression more than others. But, he says, it happens to men and women, to single and married people, to rich and poor and to those with and without children.
Generally speaking, people reach their lowest levels between the ages of about forty and fifty-five. But then, as they continue into old age, their happiness starts to climb back up.
The World Health Organization is urging countries to follow six policies to prevent millions of tobacco-related deaths. The six policies are known as MPOWER, spelled M-P-O-W-E-R.
The M is for monitoring tobacco use and prevention policies. The P is for protecting people by establishing smoke-free areas.
Every year, malaria sickens about five hundred million people. More than one million of them die, mostly young children and pregnant women in Africa.
|A Nigerian mother with an insecticide-treated bed net|
For several years in sub-Saharan Africa, the Global Fund and other groups have been paying for bed nets treated with long-lasting insect poison. Malaria is spread by mosquito bites. The groups have also invested in antimalaria drugs for A.C.T., artemisinin-based combination therapy.
Recently, a team from the World Health Organization visited Ethiopia, Ghana, Rwanda and Zambia. These countries were the first to distribute the bed nets and medicine. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria requested a study to see if the interventions were helping.
Breastfeeding should begin right after a baby is born. There may be experts at a hospital or other health center who can show a new mother several different positions for breastfeeding.
A mother can get a painful back or neck if she leans over to feed her baby. Better to bring the baby to the breast instead. The baby's mouth should be open as wide as possible so that all of the nipple and area around it fit inside.
The World Health Organization says babies should receive only breast milk for the first six months. On its Web site, the W.H.O. says breast milk is the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. And it notes that as part of the reproductive process, breastfeeding also has important health considerations for mothers.
Studies have shown that women who receive counseling about breastfeeding are more likely to feed their babies only breast milk for the first six months.